Country: Eritrea
Country Information
Country Size :  124,320 sq km (including Dahlak archipelago)
Population:  5.3 millions
Currency:  Nakfa (ERN)
Languages:  Tigrinya, Tigre, Arabic and English
Capital City:  Asmara
GDP(US$):  $2.117 billion (World Bank, 2010)
Economy-Overview:  Eritrea’s economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, which employs 70-80% of the population. Eritrea’s industrial sector accounts for 23% of GDP and employs 10% of the workforce, but has declined since the halting of trade with Ethiopia since 1998.
Main Economic Sectors:  Industry is the second largest sector after the service sector

Main Exports:  livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures
Main Imports:  machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
Main Industries:  The manufacturing industries include the ones producing glass, leather, processed foods, cotton, textile, liquors, other beverages, marble, recycled plastics, metals, and rubber goods
Natural Resources  
International Organization Membership:  United Nations (UN), African Union (AU), Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) , Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
Infrastructure:  - Massawa and Assab port towns
- Massawa & Asmara International air ports
- There are Eritrean, Lufthansa, Yemenia and Egypt Air-air lines in operation
- There are about 6990 km roads, out of which 874 km are paved, and the rest are all weathered and dry weathered roads.
- Transport is possible by Air, sea & land.
- Communication is done by tel/mobile, fax, e-mail, internet and postal services.
Livestock Information
Cattle Population :  1,975,000
Sheep Population:  2,284,000
Goat Population:  1,758,000
Camel Population:  76,000
Other Populations:  
Cattle Off take Rates:  15
Sheep Off rake Rates:  28.7
Goat Off take Rates:  32.2
Camel Off take Rates:  19.7
Livestock Policy:  Policies of the livestock sub-sector:

Government activities are being restructured to support the efforts of the private sector focused on small-holders.


a) The involvement of the Government in the animal resources sub-sector is directed towards increasing productive efficiency, especially among small holder farmers, in order to achieve the following policy objectives:
  (i) Increase the supply of animal origin proteins and nutrients
  (ii) Promote livestock ownership and increase production
  (iii) Stimulate both small and medium scale processing of livestock products and by0products
  (iv) Encourage export of animals, animal products and by-products
  (v) Increase supply of draught power.

b) Government will undertake appropriate animal research programmes aimed at increasing animal productivity and production in various ecological zones. These will include research activities in animal nutrition, breeding husbandry and health.

c) In order to streamline and improve the effectiveness of the delivery of public livestock services and the implementation of public functions and responsibilities linked to the sub-sector, the existing ARD structure will focus on strengthening of the Regional livestock services capabilities that allow filtration and monitoring to the village level, and subject matter specialist back up services.

d) The Government will endeavor to ensure that animal disease prevention and control measures against economically important diseases are carried out throughout the country in order to significantly reduce losses of animal from disease situations , and to enable animal products penetrate the international market without restrictions.

e) The Government will take the responsibility to controlling nationally important diseases, in particular class 1 scheduled diseases such as rinderpest, Foot and Mouth, CBPP, CCPP, rabies, PPR and/or any other disease which may require state intervention in the national interest.

f) Clinical treatment, vaccination and inoculations against other scheduled disease such as heamorrhagic septicaemia, Brucellosis, Newcastle, African horse sickness, Trypanosomiases, Blackleg, Pox, and activities such as Artificial insemination, bull testing, and PD which have immediate direct benefit to the farmer will be the responsibility of the individual farmer.

g) The Government will provide facilities for laboratory diagnostic services for all disease, but farmers have to pay for them except for nationally important disease or any other declared necessary for the national interest.

h) Government will be responsible for all aspects of veterinary public health such as the inspection of meat and meat by-products, and milk hygiene and quality control animal origin foodstuffs, and control use of veterinary drugs, and biologics.

i) Government will review existing legal and regulatory framework, and introduce new legislation to accommodate privatization of the delivery of services to the animal resources sub-sector.

j) The Government will encourage private veterinary practice and community based animal health care in order to provide farmers ready access to both animal health and production services.

k) Fiscal, budgetary and skill constraints hindering the public delivery of livestock services will be reduced through the design and implementation of cost recovery systems paid for by the direct beneficiaries and that manpower development programme would produce required skills.

l) Government will take the responsibility of researching to evolve livestock breeds suitable for local conditions, and introduction of improved production techniques such as the use of suitable forage species, utilization of by-products.  

m) Government will ensure appropriate land use planning in order to improve animal nutrition through the allocation of adequate grazing lands in the various ecological zones with emphasis in the lowlands.

n) Government will facilitate to the private sector export and processing of animal products through high standard inspection services.

N.B.: The regulatory department of the Ministry of Agriculture has been working, and is still working with this policy. Nevertheless this policy is now under revision, and there is an expectation of a new revised policy in the near future. 
Slaughter Facilities:  5 slaughter houses
7 slabs
Home slaughter
Hides and Skins
Quantity Hides:  0.2  million
Quantity Sheep:  0.6 million
Quantity Goat:  0.7 million
Annual Collection Level Hides:  46%
Annual Collection Level Sheep:  94%
Annual Collection Level Goat:  91%
Flaying methods:  · Semi-mechanical method of flying in the slaughter houses.
· Traditional (manual) method of flaying in the areas where slaughter houses are not available
Preservation Methods:  
Grading Systems, Available Grades and Percentage of each:  Grading is usually done by appearance, mass & size for skins, and by appearance & mass for hides. The grading of hides & skins and the percentage of each grade are as follows:
Hides: I: 35% – II: 50% - III: 10% – reject: 5%          
Skins: I: 25% – II: 50% - III: 20% – reject: 5%
Hides and Skins trade channels:  All hides and skins in the country are delivered to tanneries by licensed collectors.
Market(%):  Total Ban of export of raw hides and skins from 1994. Material is 100% processed locally and exported only in the form of pickle, wet-blue and crust
Annual Export Value(US$):  
Average Market Bovine Price:  NA
Average Market Sheep Price:  NA
Average Market Goat Price:  NA
Number of Tanneries:  5
Installed Tanning Capacity:  700  hides/day
 15,000 skins/day
Tanneries in Operation:  5
Utilized Capacity:  500  hides/day
7,500 skins/day
Output of the Industry:  · Pickled/ wet-blue sheep: 569,025 pc
· Crust /finished sheep: 63,225 pc
· Wet-blue goat: 1,327,725 pc
· Crust/ finished goat: 147,525 pc
· Wet-blue hides: 119,425 pc
· Finished leather from hides: 21,075 pc

Average size for sheep approx.: 6 sq.ft.      
Average size for goat approx.: 5 sq.ft.      
Average size for bovine approx.: 24 sq.ft.
Number of Employees:  238
Market (%):  About 70% for international market
About 30% for local consumption
The major markets are: Italy, Hong Kong, India, Pakistan, China, etc.
Estimated Annual Export Value:  US$ 2,476,333.00 (2004 est.)
Number of Footwear Factories:  13 shoe factories officially registered / Dozens of small sized and artisan shoe making enterprises in operation unregistered
In Operation:  Most of the mechanized shoe factories are in operation
Manufacturing Capacity:  Installed capacity – 6640 pairs /day
Utilized capacity – 1230 pairs /day
Number of Employees:  800 employees
Market (%):  Approximately 90% local consumption.
Approximately 10% international market
Estimated Annual Export(US$):  US$ 46, 894.00 (2004 est.)
Leather Goods
Number of Leather Goods and Garment Factories:  2 leather goods and Garment enterprises at factory level / 5 small scale.
In Production:  All are in operation
Manufacturing Capacity:  Installed capacity: 200 jackets/day
Utilized capacity:
75  Jackets/day                            
Belts, Hand bags, brief cases, wallets are also made.
Number of Employees:  70 employees in the leather Goods and Garment Industry.
Market (%):  100% local market
Estimated Annual Export Value(US$):  Nil
SWOT Analysis
Strengths:  The leather sector has great potential of raw-material input and highly disciplined labour force.
Weaknesses:  Shortage of foreign currency and limitation of skilled man-power in the footwear sub-sector and the tanneries to produce competitive shoes and quality finished leather respectively.
Opportunities:  Development of the livestock resource base and possible growth of export of (minerals) is expected to solve the foreign currency shortage. Increasing development in infrastructure and easy access to the ports of Massawa and Assab in the Red Sea are some of the opportunities available.
Threats:  Recurrent droughts, ever rising energy prices, high quality demand and the high competition in the world market are some of the main threats

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