Country: Sudan
Country Information
Country Size :   1,861,484 sq km
Population: 34,206,710
Currency: Sudanese pound (SDG,SDD)
Languages: Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Capital City: Khartoum
GDP(US$): $97.21 billion
Economy-Overview: For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Following South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to maintain economic stability, because oil earnings now provide a far lower share of the country's need for hard currency and for budget revenues
Main Economic Sectors: Agriculture, Industry and Services are the main sectors of the economy
Main Exports: Crude Oil, Cotton, Sesame, Groundnuts, Livestock, leather and Gum Arabic.
Main Imports: Capital Goods, Machinery & equipment, building and construction materials.
Main Industries: Petroleum, Food stuff (Sugar, Edible oils) Textile and Leather.
Natural Resources  
International Organization Membership: UN bodies, IMF, IBRD Group, Arab league and agencies, African Union and COMESA, WTO membership is under consideration.
Infrastructure: The country has 3 Seaports on the Red Sea and a number of Airports including 3 International Airports at Khartoum, Dongola and Port Sudan.
Railway networking covers almost all parts of the country, including the Northern parts of the South.
Road transport has also expanded considerably during the last few years.
Other: The telecommunication sector has thrived remarkably following privatization reflecting a sharp increase in the number of users.
Livestock Information
Cattle Population : 41,850
Sheep Population: 52,194
Goat Population: 43,806
Camel Population: 4.5 millions heads.
Other Populations: NA
Cattle Off take Rates: 20%
Sheep Off rake Rates: 45%
Goat Off take Rates: 37%
Camel Off take Rates: 15 %
Livestock Policy: Policies and strategies set aim at raising the productivity and competitiveness of the sector, through the following:

1. Assurance of health for the national herd for food security and increasing export from livestock and fisheries.

2. Rehabilitation and improvement of quarantines and slaughter houses according to international standards.

3. Rehabilitation and development of veterinary services in the State level.

4. Improvement of indigenous breeds to raise their productivity.

5. Improvement of Meat production breeds by implementing intensive production scale to make their product competitive in the international market.

6. Establishment of Sudanese standards for animal products to meet international standards and requirement.

7. Introduction of modern production technologies.

8. Encouragement of investment in livestock and fisheries for national food security and export.

9. Establishment of a marketing technical body within the Ministry to provide marketing information for local and export market for livestock products and fisheries.

10. Development of veterinary extension services and pastoralist Development Programs.

11. Contribution to poverty elimination and family earning development programs.

12. Supply of veterinary Drugs, Vaccines, and supervision of their use.

13. Regulation of veterinary Drugs import and registration.

14. Development of veterinary drugs supervision and control using modern technologies.

15. Availability of poultry and fish production, inputs /ingredients locally by rational utilization of local resources.

16. Inducing of Animal resources in Southern Sudan to play a roll in the National Economy.

17. Rehabilitation and development of infrastructure in war- affected areas.

18. Establishment of model production farms.

19. Setting up of federal and local legislation for support and improvement of production, marketing, quality control and consumer and environment protection.

20. Creation of work opportunities for veterinarians, animal production and natural resource graduates and their recruitment in the public and private sector.
Slaughter Facilities: Class I / Number: 6 / Remarks: Closed roofed, one Port Sudan, Nyala the rest Khartoum state-handle export meat slaughter.
Class II / Number: 3 / Remarks: One closed in Medani-Gazira state.
Class III / Number: 28
Class IV / Number: 50
Class V / Number: 50
Slab: 55
Total: 192
Note: Classification: is based on the capacity of slaughter and facilities available at the Slaughter.
Hides and Skins
Quantity Hides: 2.8
Quantity Sheep: 9.4
Quantity Goat: 15.0
Annual Collection Level Hides: 90%
Annual Collection Level Sheep: 95%
Annual Collection Level Goat: 90%
Flaying methods:  
Preservation Methods:  
Grading Systems, Available Grades and Percentage of each:

Grading: Firsts, seconds, thirds and reject, Size: large, medium and small

I: cattle: 5 / sheep: 5 / goat: 5 / camel: 0
II: cattle: 20 / sheep: 15 / goat: 15 / camel: 0
III: cattle: 25 / sheep: 50 / goat: 40 / camel: 25
IV: cattle: 50 / sheep: 30 / goat: 40 / camel: 75
Hides and Skins trade channels: Large merchants and tanneries are the main buyers and pre- finance some of their agents/ dealers to collect the hides and skins on their behalf.
Butcher (Farmer) - Small Collector (Villages, small towns, rural markets) - Large Collector (Town merchants at capitals of States) - Large Merchants
Market(%): Sheep skins: local - 85%, international - 15%  
Goat skins: local - 75%, international - 25%
Cattle: local -  50%, international - 50%
Annual Export Value(US$): NA
Average Market Bovine Price: NA
Average Market Sheep Price: NA
Average Market Goat Price: NA
Number of Tanneries: 23
Installed Tanning Capacity: 30,000,000 Sheep and goat skins  
1,875,000 Hides
Tanneries in Operation: 19
Utilized Capacity: Skins: 6,000,000 pieces
Hides: 600,000 pieces
Output of the Industry: Product: Pickled: Cattle: 13,600 / Sheep: 905,121
Product: Wet blue: 502,718 / Sheep: 4,273,772 / Goat: 2,199,731
Product: Finished Leather: Cattle: 63,682 / Goat: 737,862
Number of Employees: Approx. 1,500
Market (%): Sheep & Goat skins:
- International: 90% of processed skins
- Local: 10% of finished skins

- 75% for International market
- 25% finished for local industry.
Estimated Annual Export Value: 27.73
Number of Footwear Factories: Factories: 20 / SMES: 35 / Workshops: 730 / Artisan factories: 330
In Operation: Fully operated for local army boots and local shoes some for export
Manufacturing Capacity:

Large Factories: Installed capacity: 17,300,000
Large Workshops: Installed capacity: 17,300,000
SME/small workshops: Installed capacity: 5,500,000 / Actual capacity: 1,835,000
Artisans: Installed capacity: 1,650,000 / Actual: 1,320,000
Total: Installed capacity: 25,325,000 / Actual capacity: 3,155,000

Number of Employees:  
Market (%): Local Markets: 100 %
Estimated Annual Export(US$):  
Leather Goods
Number of Leather Goods and Garment Factories: Leather goods and garment factories – ONE / Artisan shops in markets
In Production: The one factory has only recently been established
Manufacturing Capacity: NA
Number of Employees: NA
Market (%): Local Markets: 100%
Estimated Annual Export Value(US$):  
SWOT Analysis
Strengths: * A large livestock base producing sizable hides and Skins
* Good size of investment in the tanneries industries and footwear
* Cheep labour
* The government policy supports the leather, textile & vegetable oils industries, further action & policies are expected to support industry for adding value
Weaknesses: * Low quality of raw Hides/Skins
* Low productivity and slow technological advancement
* Lack of design capabilities
* Low management and marketing skills, leading to low competitiveness coupled with flooding of market by East Asian products
* Small investment in non - footwear leather products.
Opportunities: New policies adopted to concentrate on leather, textile and vegetable oils industries give scope for expansion both horizontally and vertically to process all Sudanese hides/skins aiming at export market-regional & global.

Encouragement Factors for solid investment base in Sudan:

- Immense natural resources and variegated climatic conditions.
- Strategic position in the heart of Africa and its projection in the Arab World and North Africa.
- Realization of peace and Democracy and expected reconciliation to solve other conflicts within the country.
- The improvement of infrastructure such as a roads, communication and means of transport.
- Liberalization of economy and privatization trends.
- Investment motivating policies: financial, monitory and improvement legislation.
- Preferential privilege to investment in projects in less developed areas, war / conflict affected areas, large employment creation projects and promotion of scientific and technical research.
- There are also guarantees against rationalization, confiscation with retransfer of invested capital in case of non- execution.

Leather related opportunities:

As its one of the most important 3 agro industries, the investment opportunities proposed include:
- Rehabilitation or new investment for advancement in processing to leather and leather products for added value and export oriented not only for footwear, but also garments, upholstery and leather products.
- Establishment of chemical industries for Tannery chemicals from indigenous materials E.g.: Chrome ore, lime vegetable tannins, Oils, pigments, etc.
Last making from plastics, also soles and adhesives.
- Industries for accessories for footwear and other leather products.

Livestock projects should incorporate hides/skins improvement from husbandry, slaughtering, flaying, preservation at slaughter house as large investors are expected for Meat for export to Arab and Muslim Countries.
Threats: High operational costs due to continuation of taxes and levies from different levels of government.
* Flooding of market with cheap products from Asia and other countries like Syria, Turkey and Egypt.

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